ALMA Laboratory is specific by its emphasis on mineralogical analysis and the application of geosciences in the research of fine arts. Procedures not commonly used in chemical-technological laboratories include, for example, structural analysis of mineral pigments by X-ray powder diffraction and micro-diffraction, description of their characteristic impurities, determination of trace elements, or micro-palaeontological analysis.

These approaches allow to differentiate pigments more finely - not only by their type (e.g. ochre, verdigris, lead-tin yellow), but also by their structural varieties, methods of their artificial production or according to the place of extraction of the natural raw material. In some cases, e.g. in Baroque clay-based grounds, the origin of the raw material determines also the regional provenance of the painting. In general, tracking and linking the paths of the materials and technologies with the paths of the artists is very challenging and requires systematic approach.